Pressure Vessels

Fitness-for-Service (FFS) is an assessment that is carried out using standardized methods and criteria, that evaluates the structural integrity of an asset/component to determine whether the asset/component is suitable for its intended use.

The Fitness-for-Service (FFS) assessment provides a quantitative measure of structural integrity and is part of asset integrity management. The assessments are used to highlight the need for replacement or repair of assets/components.

Two of the most commonly used are the recommended practice for assessing fitness-for-service published by the American Petroleum Institute (API) in API 579 and the guidance for the assessment of defects metallic structures published by British Standards in BS 7910.

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PDF

API 579-1- ASME FFS-1 Fitness -for - Service

2021

This Standard provides guidance for Conducting FFS assessments using methodologies specifically prepared for pressurized equipment the guidelines provided in this Standard can be used to make run-repair-replace decisions to help determine if components in pressurized equipment containing flaws that have been identified by inspection can continue to operate safely for some period of time.

API

Upon Request

2

S

PDF

API 510 -Pressure Vessel Inspection Code- In-service Inspection, Rating, Repair, and Alteration

2018

This inspection code covers the in-service inspection, repair, alteration, and rerating activities for pressure vessels and the pressure-relieving devices protecting these vessels. This inspection code applies to all hydrocarbon and chemical process vessels that have been placed in service

API

Upon Request

3

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PDF

BSI Standard PD-5500- Specification for unfired fusion welded Pressure Vessels

2019

This Published Document specifies requirements for the design, construction, inspection, testing and verification of compliance of new unfired fusion welded pressure vessels

BSI

Upon Request

4

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PDF

ASME BPVC Section VIII div. 1

2021

This Division contains mandatory requirements, specific prohibitions, and nonmandatory guidance for pressure vessel materials, design, fabrication, examination, inspection, testing, certification, and pressure relief. The Code does not address all aspects of these activities, and those aspects which are not specifically addressed should not be considered prohibited. Engineering judgment must be consistent with the philosophy of this Division, and such judgments must never be used to overrule mandatory requirements or specific prohibitions of this Division.

ASME

Upon Request

5

S

PDF

ASME BPVC Section VIII div. 2

2021

This Division contains mandatory requirements, specific prohibitions, and nonmandatory guidance for the design, materials, fabrication, examination, inspection, testing, overpressure protection, and certification of pressure vessels.

ASME

Upon Request

6

GL

PDF

Fitness for service guide - Section 1 Part A - Evaluation of Pressure Vessels, Piping, and Storage Tanks

N/A 

This guide provides fitness for service assessment methodology applicable to existing pressure vessels, storage tanks and piping

Exxon

Upon Request

7

HB

PDF

Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering

2002

This Book outlines the following topics: Chapter 1 gives a brief historical background and develops the fundamental concepts. Equations of equilibrium, stress-strain relations, strain displacement relations, and the principles of potential energy are reviewed

Properties of matrices and determinants are reviewed in Chapter 2.

Chapter 3 develops the key concepts of finite element formulation by considering one-dimensional problems

Finite element formulation for plane and three-dimensional trusses is developed in Chapter 4

Chapter 5 introduces the finite element formulation for two-dimensional plane stress and plane strain problems using constant strain triangle (CST) elements.

Chapter 6 treats the modeling aspects axisymmetric solids subjected to axisymmetric loading

Chapter 7 introduces the concepts of isoparametric quadrilateral and higher order elements and numerical integration using Gaussian quadrature.

Beams and application of Hermite shape functions are presented in Chapter 8.

Chapter 9 presents three-dimensional stress analysis. Tetrahedral and hexahedral elements are presented.

Scalar field problems are treated in detail in Chapter 10. Chapter 11 introduces dynamic considerations. Preprocessing and postprocessing concepts are developed in Chapter 12

 

Tirupathi R. Chandrupatla

and

Ashok D. Belegundu

Upon Request

8

HB

PDF

Fitness-for-Service and Integrity of Piping, Vessels and Tanks

2005

This Book provides instruction on the latest ASME recommended practices for inspecting, evaluating, and monitoring pressure vessels and piping.

This handy volume annotates and explains ASME code and API inspection and fitness-for-service practices. Presented in a clear, precise manner, this comprehensive guide meticulously explains how stress analysis, materials, engineering, and nondestructive inspection affect fitness-for-service

George Antaki

Upon Request

 9

HB

PDF

Finite Element Analysis

2006

This textbook represents the Finite Element Analysis methods used to solve large-scale analytical problems.

Mircea Rades

 Upon Request

10

Paper

PDF

FFS Forum - Dealing with Multiple Damage Mechanisms in FFS Assessment

2020

This Guidance provides an overview on the damage mechanisms and the criteria for damage evaluation as per API 579-1

Greg Garic

Upon Request

11

Paper

DOCX

Developing a Fitness for Service Approach for Reduced Toughness Carbon Steel Piping, Flanges & Fittings

2018

This article is an overview of the issue of reduced fitting toughness; the possible contributors to the problem; the measures that have been taken to-date to address the issue; and an introduction of a proposed fitness-for-service (FFS) approach to address the issue, specifically for components that are currently in-service.

Dr. Kannan Subramanian , John Norris, Ralph E. King, Daniel Ayewah

Upon Request

12

Paper

PDF

Ductile Tearing Instability Assessment of a Cracked Reactor Pressure Vessel Nozzle for Larger Critical Crack Size Compared to the FAD Method

2016

 

Reasons for easier elastic-plastic convergence for a tearing stability assessment than for an FAD (Failure analysis diagram) assessment are discussed in this guide

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

G. Thorwald and J. Wright

Upon Request

13

Paper

PDF

Examination of non-intuitive stress intensity solution trends for thick-wall cylinder internal cracks from ASME STPPT-072

2015

This paper will review the project parameters and three-dimensional crack meshes used to compute the K and G solutions and will explain the non-intuitive result trends. These new G solutions will extend the G factor solutions available in the 2007 API 579-1/ASME FFS-1 Annex C tables to include the thick-wall cylinder cases. Extending the K solutions will enable fatigue crack growth and fracture assessment of a larger range of cracked cylinders

G. Thorwald

Upon Request

14

Paper

PDF

Fatigue Crack Propagation Comparison of a Hydropower Main Inlet Valve Using 3D Crack Meshes in a Full Model Versus a Sub-model

2017

Cracks can grow due to fatigue cyclic loading and to address the second question two methods to analyze crack growth propagation will be examined in this paper

G. Thorwald , J. Wright and D. Blanks

Upon Request

15

Paper

PDF

fitness-for Service Forum corrosion assessment without the grid

2018

This Document gives an outline on the steps to corrosion assessment based on point measurements without the grid

Greg Garic

Upon Request

16

Paper

PDF

High Resolution Inspection Data and Advancements in Finite Element Analysis Make Level 3 FFS More Affordable

2017

This Document discusses the fitness for service levels and Inspection Technology and Measurement Performance in the Context of FFS as well as Ultrasonic Corrosion Mapping Systems

Tyron Kimble

Upon Request

17

Paper

PDF

Inspectioneering - API 579-1 - ASME FFS-1 - 6 things You need to know about API 579

2018

This paper discusses some important concepts regarding fitness for service assessment and the associated damage mechanisms in pressurized equipment  

Greg Garic

Upon Request

18

Paper

PDF

Inspectioneering - API 579-1 - ASME FFS-1 - Fitness for Service

2019

This Guide will discuss topics  such as FFS assessment procedure , assessment techniques, and acceptance criteria as per API 579-1

Greg Garic

Upon Request

19

Paper

PDF

Maintenance Engineering - Case Study of Fitness For Service Assessments

2011

This study illustrates the application of the design code for FFS according to API RP 579 and BS 7910 in the case of a longitudinal defect (cracklike flaw) on a pipe in pressure conditions. The comparison is carried using both codes in order to assess the stability of the defect

Francesco Giacobbe , Domenico Geraci , Emanuele Biancuzzo, and Mirko Albino

Upon Request

20

Paper

PDF

PVP2016-63910 - Leak Before Break Assessment of a Cracked Reactor Vessel Nozzle Using 3D Crack Meshes

 

 

2016

 

 This Paper discusses the Assessment of a cracked reactor vessel nozzle using 3D crack meshes method

Greg Thorwald, Lucie Parietti

Upon Request

21

Paper

PDF

PVP2017-65760 - Cylinder Axial Crack Reference Stress Comparison Using Elastic-Plastic FEA 3D Crack Mesh J-Integral Values

2017

 

 The goal of this case study is to examine the reference stress solutions for very thick-walled cylinders to see if they can be used with recently computed thick wall cylinder K solutions

Greg Thorwald, and Pedro Vargas

Upon Request

22

Paper

PDF

PVP2017-66271 - Consideration of Reduction in Stiffness Due to Cracking and the Impact on Standing Stress Intensity Factor Solutions

2017

This paper details the investigation, and aims to provide the reader with an awareness of situations when the standard stress intensity factor solutions may no longer be valid, and offers general recommendations to consider when calculating stress intensity factors in these situations.

Daniel M. Blanks

Upon Request

23

Paper

PDF

Steam Turbine Critical Crack Evaluation and Cracks to Prioritize Inspection

N/A

 

 The objective of this paper is to evaluate postulated cracks in a power plant steam turbine and to rank the cracks to prioritize inspection. 3D crack meshes are used to model a range of crack sizes and to compute the crack front J-integral and stress intensity K trends versus crack size.

G. Thorwald, V. Garcia, R. Bentley, and O. Kwon

Upon Request

24

Paper

PDF

Using the Failure Assessment Diagram Method with Fatigue Crack Growth to Determine Leak-before-Rupture

2012

The objective of this paper is to use Abaqus/Standard to compute elastic-plastic J-integral results along the crack front. These results are then used to calculate the plastic collapse crack reference stress, especially for cases when the reference stress solution is not available for a structural component

C. Tipple, and G. Thorwald

Upon Request

25

Paper

PDF

FFS Forum -Thickness grids & critical thickness profiles

2019

A cornerstone of the Level 1 and Level 2 metal loss assessment methods in API 579 is the concept of measuring thickness on a grid and constructing a “critical thickness profile.” These concepts are fundamental to Level 1 & 2 assessments in both Parts 4 and 5 (general and local metal loss).

Greg Garic

 Upon Request

26

Paper

PDF

API 510 Pressure Vessel Inspection Code-FFS Evaluation of Widely Scattered Pits

2019

This paper presents the evaluation methods of widely scattered pitting as per API 579-1 part 6

John E. Bringas and Kimberley Meszaros

  Upon Request

27

Paper

PDF

Fitness For Purpose Assessment of Misalignment in Transverse Butt Welds

2002

This Paper Discusses the Fitness For Purpose Assessment of Misalignment in Transverse Butt Welds in Pressure Vessels

The Welding Institute

  Upon Request

28

Report

PDF

FEACrack - 3D Finite Element Software for Cracks - Benchmarks and Validation

2017

This report compares crack results for 3D Finite Element Analysis (FEA) meshes generated by FEACrack to theoretical and published results. The comparison of crack results validates both the crack mesh and the analysis program computing the solution.

Quest Integrity

Free

29

Presentation

PPT

The API 579 Fitness-for-Service Standard - The Current State of Technology and a Ten Year Look Ahead

2006

This presentation discusses topics such as :

The damage mechanisms, FFS Assessment Methods, In-Service Inspection Codes and Fitness-For-Service, Fitness-For-Service and RBI - Complementary Technologies, Harmonizing Pressure Vessel Design and Fitness-For-Service

The Equity Engineering Group Inc

Free

30

Presentation

PDF

FFS and FFS Software

N/A  

This Presentation gives a general overview on the FFS levels and procedure used in the Assessment and the software approach used in the evaluation process

 N/A 

Free