Ultrasonic Testing

Ultrasonic testing (UT) is a family of non-destructive testing techniques based on the propagation of ultrasonic waves in the object or material tested. In most common UT applications, very short ultrasonic pulse-waves with center frequencies ranging from 0.1-15 MHz, and occasionally up to 50 MHz, are transmitted into materials to detect internal flaws or to characterize materials. A common example is ultrasonic thickness measurement, which tests the thickness of the test object, for example, to monitor pipework corrosion.

Ultrasonic testing is often performed on steel and other metals and alloys, though it can also be used on concrete, wood and composites, albeit with less resolution. It is used in many industries including steel and aluminum construction, metallurgy, manufacturing, aerospace, automotive and other transportation sectors.

No.

Type

Format

Title

Edition

Description

Author

Priority

Availability

1

Presentation

PDF

AGFA - Basic Principles Of Ultrasonic Testing

2003

This Presentation covers the pasic principle of ultrasonic testing

Michael Berke

‘Upon Requist

2

GL

PDF

API - Recomended Practice For Ultrasonic And Magnetic Examination Of Offshore Structural Fabrication And Guidelines For Qualification Of Technicians

2010

This recommended practice (RP) for nondestructive examination (NDE) of offshore structural fabrication and guidelines for qualification of personnel contains guidance on NDE methods which have evolved from fabrication experience with offshore structures. These methods are commonly used and have found acceptance due to their reliable detection of discontinuities. The five NDE methods routinely used in offshore structural fabrication are visual (VT), penetrant (PT), magnetic particle (MT), radiography (RT), and ultrasonic (UT) examinations. This recommended practice primarily addresses the MT and UT methods. Guidance on VT, PT and RT is incorporated by reference to ANSI/AWS D1.1. Further recommendations are offered for determining the qualifications of personnel using MT and UT techniques. Recommendations are also offered for the integration of these techniques into a general quality control program. The interrelationship between joint design, the significance of defects in welds, and the ability of NDE personnel to detect critical-size defects is also discussed.

API

‘Upon Requist

3

S

PDF

ASM - Ultrasonic Inspection According Vol. 17 Handbook

2003

a nondestructive method in which beams of high-frequency sound waves are introduced into materials for the detection of surface and subsurface flaws in the material. The sound waves travel through the material with some attendant loss of energy (attenuation) and are reflected at interfaces. The reflected beam is displayed and then analyzed to define the presence and location of flaws or discontinuities.

Mohamed-Elganzory

‘Upon Requist

4

S

PDF

ASME V - Article 4 - Ultrasonic Examination Methode For Welds

2019

This Article provides or references requirements for weld examinations, which are to be used in selecting and developing ultrasonic examination procedures when examination to any part of this Article is a requirement of a referencing Code Section. These procedures are to be used for the ultrasonic examination of welds and the dimensioning of indications for comparison with acceptance standards when required by the referencing Code Section; the referencing Code Section shall be consulted for specific requirements for the following

ASME

‘Upon Requist

5

S

PDF

ASME V - Article 23 - Standard Practice For Measuring Thickness By Manual Ultrasonic Pulse-Echo Contact Method

N/A

 This practice provides guidelines for measuring the thickness of materials using the contact pulse-echo method at temperatures not to exceed 200°F (93°C).

ASME

‘Upon Requist

6

GB

PDF

ASNT - EMAT Ultrasonic Guided Wave Inspection Of Simple Pipe Supports

2011

Guided waves are different from conventional (bulk) ultrasonic waves, in that they use the medium that they propagate in as a wave-guide. Typically they have much lower frequencies, much longer propagation distances and different interaction rules with fl aws when compared to conventional ultrasonic waves. They are also dispersive (depending on the mode chosen) and fi ll the entire volume of the inspected area of the pipe, which gives them very different behavior. One of the more common applications for guided waves is to be used as a screening tool for detection of wall loss on pipes.

ASNT

‘Upon Requist

7

GB

PDF

ASNT - Guide For Ultrasonic Testing And Evaluation Of Weld Flaws

1970

This document presents procedures and acceptance limits fOr COntact ultrasonic inspect~n of steel butt welds in the thickness range of 1/4 to 2 inches. The acceptance limits described in the following sections are compatible with those set forth in SSC-177, “Guide for Interpretation of Nondestructive Tests of Welds in Ship HU1l Structures” for radiographic inspection and should therefore result in satisfactory ship welds. Occasions may arise where radiographic inspection could provide additional information.

ASNT

‘Upon Requist

8

GB

PDF

ASNT - Level II Study Guide - Ultrasonic Testing Method (UT)

2002

This study guide contains basic information intended to prepare a candidate for Level II ultrasonic inspection examinations. This study guide does not present all of the knowledge necessary for certification; the candidate is expected to supplement this guide with the recommended references that follow.

ASNT

‘Upon Requist

9

Paper

PDF

ASNT - Level III - Corrosion Monitoring And Thickness Measurement

N/A

During the last three years my interest in the use of ultrasonics for the detection of corrosion and the measurement of remaining wall thickness has been re-awakened. The method has been extensively used to verify and quantify Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) results. Discrepancies between ultrasonic and MFL results have usually been put down to "Another MFL false - call." However, having watched many ultrasonic tests being carried out, I have come to believe that the boot is often on the other foot and that we place too much faith in the ultrasonic method for corrosion monitoring. The techniques used by many practitioners give rise to serious shortcomings in both probability of detection, and accuracy of remaining wall assessment. These shortcomings are not confined to corrosion monitoring of flat plate, but apply equally to pipe and vessel inspection. This paper looks at the root causes of poor performance with ultrasonics and suggests some methods to improve the situation

ASNT

‘Upon Requist

10

GL

PDF

ASNT - Level III Study Guide - Ultrasonic Testing Method (UT)

1992

This study guide has been developed to assist persons preparing to take the Ultrasonic I .evel Ill examination offered through ASNT. It is intended to feature the major concepts considered central to the traditional uses of Ultrasonics NDT as it is practiced throughout the USA, and to present abstracts of several of the typical technical specialities, codes, and standards from which "applications" questions are sometimes derived. It is not intended to be a comprehensive coverage of all possible technical issues that may appear on the Level W test, but rather it is intended to reflect the breadth of the possible technology topics which comprise potential questions material. It is vital that the supplemental references be carefully reviewed to amplify on the statements in the Guide in order to place each technical topic into its proper context.

ASNT

‘Upon Requist

11

HB

PDF

ASNT - NDT Handbook Volume 7 ultrasonic Testing

2007

Nondestructive testing is used to investigate specifically the material integrity or properties of the test object. A number of other technologies — for instance, radio astronomy, voltage and amperage measurement and rheometry (flow measurement) — are nondestructive but are not used specifically to evaluate material properties. Radar and sonar are classified as nondestructive testing when used to inspect dams, for instance, but not when they are used to chart a river bottom.

ASNT

‘Upon Requist

12

RP

PDF

ASNT - Recommended Practice No. SNT-TC-1A

2001

It is recognized that the effectiveness of nondestructive testing (NDT) applications depends upon the capabilities of the personnel who are responsible for and perform, NDT. This Recommended Practice has been prepared to establish guidelines for the qualification and certification of NDT personnel whose specific jobs require appropriate knowledge of the technical principles underlying the nondestructive tests they perform, witness, monitor, or evaluate. 1.2 This document provides guidelines for the establishment of a qualification and certification program. 1.3 These guidelines have been developed by the American Society for Nondestructive Testing, Inc., to aid employers in recognizing the essential factors to be considered in qualifying personnel engaged in any of the NDT methods listed in Section 3. 1.4 It is recognized that these guidelines may not be appropriate for certain employers’ circumstances and/or applications. In developing a written practice as required in Section 5, the employer should review the detailed recommendations presented herein and modify them, as necessary, to meet particular needs.

ASNT

‘Upon Requist

13

Paper

PDF

ASNT - Ultrasonic Inspection Of Stator Lamination Core Of Large Hydro Generators

2007

The stator of hydroelectric generators is composed of steel laminations and stator coils. The steel laminations are made of approximately 0.017” thick silicon steel and securely held in place by long core clamping studs. The stud is made of medium to high strength carbon steel and contains threaded ends.

ASNT

‘Upon Requist

14

Paper

PDF

ASNT - Ultrasonic Testing of Ring Type Joint Flanges For Detection Of Chloride Stress Corrosion Induced Cracking

2009

 Ultrasonic Testing using shear and longitudinal wave can be applied for detection of chloride stress corrosion cracking of ring type joint (RTJ) fl anges. This method of detection is sensitive to locate cracks, provided proper test variables are used. These variables include using an appropriate transducer angle, transducer frequency, beam spread and optimizing the sensitivity.

ASNT

‘Upon Requist

15

Paper

PDF

ASNT - Ultrasonic Thickness Testing For Corrosion

2007

Ultrasonic thickness testing today is recognized by ASNT SNT-TC-1A and CP-189 as a limited certifi cation; meaning it requires less hours of experience and training. No doubt the petrochemical industry was a strong supporter of this because it takes less time and money to get a UT II thickness limited technician out there scanning pipes, vessels and tanks for corrosion. It all works well as long as the corrosion exhibits large pits with broad refl ective surfaces. Once this changes there are many setbacks that can drastically affect the results and create interpretation problems for the technician. This paper explores those setbacks and attempts to educate end users on how various factors affect their data

ASNT

‘Upon Requist

16

GL

PDF

ASNT - UT-Level III Study-Guide

1992

This study guide has been developed to assist persons preparing to take the Ultrasonic Level III examination offered through ASNT. It is intended to feature the major concepts considered central to the traditional uses of Ultrasonics NDT as it is practiced throughout the USA, and to present abstracts of several of the typical technical specialities, codes, and standards from which "applications" questions are sometimes derived. It is not intended to he a comprehensive coverage of all possible technical issues that may appear on the Level III test, but rather it is intended to reflect the breadth of the possible technology topics which comprise potential questions material. It is vital that the supplemental references he carefully reviewed to amplify on the statements in the Guide in order to place each technical topic into its proper context.

ASNT

‘Upon Requist

17

S

PDF

ASTM A435-A435M - Standard Specification For Straight-Beam Ultrasonic Examination Of Steel Plates

2012

This specification covers the procedure and acceptance standards for straight-beam, pulse-echo, ultrasonic examination of rolled fully killed carbon and alloy steel plates, 1⁄2 in. [12.5 mm] and over in thickness. It was developed to assure delivery of steel plates free of gross internal discontinuities such as pipe, ruptures, or laminations and is to be used whenever the inquiry, contract, order, or specification states that the plates are to be subjected to ultrasonic examination

ASTM

‘Upon Requist

18

S

PDF

ASTM A435A435M-17 - Standard Specification For Straight-Beam Ultrasoinc Examination Of Steel Plates

2020

This specification covers the procedure and acceptance standards for straight-beam, pulse-echo, ultrasonic examination of rolled fully killed carbon and alloy steel plates, 1⁄2 in. [12.5 mm] and over in thickness. It was developed to assure delivery of steel plates free of gross internal discontinuities such as pipe, ruptures, or laminations and is to be used whenever the inquiry, contract, order, or specification states that the plates are to be subjected to ultrasonic examination.

ASTM

‘Upon Requist

19

S

PDF

ASTM A578A578M-17 - Standard Specification For Straight-Beam Ultrasonic Examination Of Rolled Stee; Plates For Special Applications

2019

This specification2 covers the procedure and acceptance standards for straight-beam, pulse-echo, ultrasonic examination of rolled carbon and alloy steel plates, 3⁄8 in. [10 mm] in thickness and over, for special applications. The method will detect internal discontinuities parallel to the rolled surfaces. Three levels of acceptance standards are provided. Supplementary requirements are provided for alternative procedures.

ASTM

‘Upon Requist

20

S

PDF

ASTM A578M-A578M-7 - Standard Specification For Sraight-Beam Ultrasonic Examination Of Rolled Steel Plates For Special Applications

2013

This specification2 covers the procedure and acceptance standards for straight-beam, pulse-echo, ultrasonic examination of rolled carbon and alloy steel plates, 3⁄8 in. [10 mm] in thickness and over, for special applications. The method will detect internal discontinuities parallel to the rolled surfaces. Three levels of acceptance standards are provided. Supplementary requirements are provided for alternative procedures.

ASTM

‘Upon Requist

21

S

PDF

ASTM E114-15 - Standard Practice For Ultrasonic Pulse Echo Straight-Beam Contact Testing

2019

This practice2 covers ultrasonic examination of materials by the pulse-echo method using straight-beam longitudinal waves introduced by direct contact of the search unit with the material being examined.

ASTM

‘Upon Requist

22

S

PDF

ASTM E164 - Standard Practice For Contact UltrasonicTtesting Of Weldments

2019

This practice covers techniques for the ultrasonic A-scan examination of specific weld configurations joining wrought ferrous or aluminum alloy materials to detect weld discontinuities (see Note 1). The reflection method using pulsed waves is specified. Manual techniques are described employing contact of the search unit through a couplant film or water column

ASTM

‘Upon Requist

23

S

PDF

ASTM E213-14 - Standard Practice for Ultrasonic Testing of Metal Pipe and Tubing (2)

2015

This practice covers a procedure for detecting discontinuities in metal pipe and tubing during a volumetric examination using ultrasonic methods. Specific techniques of the ultrasonic method to which this practice applies include pulse-reflection techniques, both contact and non-contact (for example, as described in Guide E1774), and angle beam immersion techniques. Artificial reflectors consisting of longitudinal, and, when specified by the using party or parties, transverse reference notches placed on the surfaces of a reference standard are employed as the primary means of standardizing the ultrasonic system

ASTM

‘Upon Requist

24

S

PDF

ASTM E213-14 - Standard Practice For Ultrasonic Testing Of Metal Pipe And Tubing

2017

his practice covers a procedure for detecting discontinuities in metal pipe and tubing during a volumetric examination using ultrasonic methods. Specific techniques of the ultrasonic method to which this practice applies include pulse-reflection techniques, both contact and non-contact (for example, as described in Guide E1774), and angle beam immersion techniques. Artificial reflectors consisting of longitudinal, and, when specified by the using party or parties, transverse reference notches placed on the surfaces of a reference standard are employed as the primary means of standardizing the ultrasonic system.

ASTM

‘Upon Requist

25

S

PDF

ASTM E587-10 - Standard Practical For Ultrasonic Angle-Beam Contact Testing

2010

This practice covers ultrasonic examination of materials by the pulse-echo technique, using continuous coupling of angular incident ultrasonic vibrations. 1.2 This practice shall be applicable to development of an examination procedure agreed upon by the users of the practice

ASTM

‘Upon Requist

26

S

PDF

ASTM E587-15 - Standard Practice For Ultrasonic Angle-Beam Contact Testing

2019

This practice covers ultrasonic examination of materials by the pulse-echo technique, using continuous coupling of angular incident ultrasonic vibrations

ASTM

‘Upon Requist

27

S

PDF

ASTM E1961-16 - Standard Practice For Mechanized Ultrasonic Testing Of Grith Welds Using Zonal Discrimination With Focused Search Units

2019

This practice covers the requirements for mechanized ultrasonic examination of girth welds. Evaluation is based upon the results of mechanized ultrasonic examination. Acceptance criteria are based upon flaw limits defined by an Engineering Critical Assessment (ECA) or other accept/reject criteria defined by the Contracting Agency.

ASTM

‘Upon Requist

28

S

PDF

ASTM E2192-13 - Standard Guide For Planar Flaw Height Sizing By Ultrasonics

2019

This guide provides tutorial information and a description of the principles and ultrasonic examination techniques for measuring the height of planar flaws which are open to the surface. The practices and technology described in this standard guide are intended as a reference to be used when selecting a specific ultrasonic flaw sizing technique as well as establishing a means for instrument standardization

ASTM

‘Upon Requist

29

Paper

PDF

Automated UT Detection System For NDT Of Forged Products

N/A

The new multi purpose inspection system is devoted to manufacturing examination of ferritic or austenitic steel shells and discs. These forged pieces can have dimensions up to 5 m high and 6,5 m in diameter for the shells and up to 1m thick and 6 m in diameter for the discs. They are characterised by a weight that can reach 120 tons. Steam generator shells (from hollow ingots), tube plates and turbine disc are examples of components within the scope of this application.

N/A

Free

30

Paper

PDF

Automatic Ultrasonic Inspection Improves And Benefits Economy In Welding Workshops

N/A

The use of automated ultrasonic testing (AUT) systems are requested in many steel manufacturing industries to improve the quality of an object. In particular AUT is used in those industries that produces a high number of identical objects like for example steel pipes-, bars- and plates. AUT systems may also be an improvement due to the objects complexity either with respect to the shape or the material properties.

N/A

Free

31

HB

PDF

AWS - Handbook On The Ultrasonic Examination Of Austenitic Welds

1986

This Handbook gives recommendations for the ultrasonic examination of austenitic welds by man-ual scanning techniques which use the pulse-echo method and A-Scan presentation. The same recommendations can be extended to mechanical scanning techniques if special procedures are prepared for the data recording system.

AWS

‘Upon Requist

32

Paper

DOCX

AWSD1.1 Ultrasonic Testing Acceptance Criteria

N/A

This paper covers UT Acceptance-Rejection Criteria (Statically Loaded Nontubular Connections)

N/A

Free

33

Paper

PDF

Basic Principles Of Ultrasonic Testing

N/A

Ultrasonic Testing (UT) uses high frequency sound energy to conduct examinations and make measurements. Ultrasonic inspection can be used for flaw detection/evaluation, dimensional measurements, material characterization, and more. To illustrate the general inspection principle, a typical pulse/echo inspection configuration as illustrated below will be used

N/A

Free

34

Paper

PDF

Benefits of the Multiple Echo Technique for Ultrasonic Thickness Testing

2011

Much effort has been put into determining methods to make accurate thickness measurements, especially at elevated temperatures. An accuracy of +/- 0.001 inches is typically noted for commercial ultrasonic thickness gauges and ultrasonic thickness techniques. Codes and standards put limitations on many inspection factors including equipment, calibration tolerance and temperature variations

James B. Elder

‘Upon Requist

35

HB

PDF

BINDT - PCN Ultrasonic Testing Inspection Level II Material

2010

Non-destructive testing is the ability to examine a material (usually for discontinuities) without degrading it.

BINDT

‘Upon Requist

36

S

PDF

BS 4331-1 - Methods For Assessing the performance Characteristics Of Ultrasonic Flaw Destection Equipment - Part 1 - Overall Performance. On-Site Methods

1978

This Part of this British Standard describes methods for checking the performance of ultrasonic flaw detection equipment (i.e. instrument and probes) by the use of appropriate standard calibration blocks selected from BS 2704, or of other suitable blocks based on the requirements of that standard. The methods described are suitable for the use of operators working under site or shop floor conditions.

BSI

‘Upon Requist

37

S

PDF

BS 4331-2 -Methods For Assessing the performance Characteristics Of Ultrasonic Flaw Destection Equipment - Part 2 - Electrical Performance

1972

This British Standard describes methods for assessing the electrical performance characteristics of ultrasonic flaw detection equipment (excluding probes) and accordingly deals with the functioning of the transmitter (pulse generator), amplifier, time base and power supply

BSI

‘Upon Requist

38

S

PDF

BS EN 1712 - Non-Destructive Testing Of Welds - Ultrasonic Testing Of Welded Joints - Acceptance Levels

1997

!This European Standard specifies ultrasonic acceptance levels, 2 and 3, for full penetration welded joints in ferritic steels, which correspond to the quality levels B and C of EN 25817. Other acceptance levels can be used by specification.

BSI

‘Upon Requist

39

S

PDF

BS EN 1714 - Non-Destructive Testing Of Welds - Ultrasonic Testing Of Welded Joints

1998

This European Standard specifies methods for the manual ultrasonic testing of fusion welded joints in metallic materials equal to and above 8 mm thick which exhibit low ultrasonic attenuation (especially that due to scatter). It is primarily intended for use on full penetration welded joints where both the welded and parent material are ferritic.

BSI

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40

S

PDF

BS EN 10160  - Ultrasonic Testing of steel flat product Of thickness equal or greater Than 6mm - Reflection Method

1999

This European Standard describes a method for the ultrasonic testing of uncoated flat steel product for internal discontinuities. It is applicable to flat product in nominal thickness range of 6 mm to 200 mm of non-alloyed or alloyed steel, excluding austenitic or austenoferritic steels. However, this standard may be applied to the latter types of steels provided that the difference between the amplitude of the noise signal and that of the echo detection threshold is sufficient for the limit fixed.

BSI

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41

S

PDF

BS EN 12668-1 - Non-Destructive Testing - Characterization And Verification Of Ultrasonic Examination Equipment - Part 1 - Instruments

2010

This European Standard specifies methods and acceptance criteria for assessing the electrical performance of analogue and digital ultrasonic instruments for pulse operation using A-scan display, employed for manual ultrasonic non-destructive examination with single or dual-element probes operating within the centre frequency range 0,5 MHz to 15 MHz. Ultrasonic instruments for continuous waves are not included in this standard. This standard may partly be applicable to ultrasonic instruments in automated systems but then other tests can be needed to ensure satisfactory performance.

BSI

‘Upon Requist

42

S

PDF

BS EN 12668-2 - Non-Destructive Characterization And Verification Of Ultrasonic Examination Equipment - Part 2 - Probes

2010

This European Standard covers probes used for ultrasonic non-destructive examination in the following categories with centre frequencies in the range 0,5 MHz to 15 MHz, focusing and without focusing means

BSI

‘Upon Requist

43

S

PDF

BS EN 12668-3 - Non-Destructive Characterization And Verification Of Ultrasonic Examination Equipment - Part3 - Combined Equipment

2013

This European Standard describes methods and acceptance criteria for verifying the performance of ultrasonic equipment (i.e. instrument and probe combined as defined in EN 12668-1 and EN 12668-2) by the use of appropriate standard calibration blocks. These methods are not intended to prove the suitability of the equipment for particular applications. The methods described are suitable for the use by operators working under site or shop floor conditions. The methods only apply to pulse echo equipment using A-scan presentation, with gain controls or attenuators calibrated in steps not greater than 2 dB and used essentially in contact testing. These methods are specifically intended for manual testing equipment. For automated testing different tests can be needed to ensure satisfactory performance.

BSI

‘Upon Requist

44

S

PDF

BS EN 15317 - Non-destructive testing  - Ultrasonic Characterization and verification of Ultrasonic thickness measuring equipment

2013

This European Standard specifies methods and acceptance criteria for assessing the performance of instruments for measuring thickness using pulse-echo ultrasound.

BSI

‘Upon Requist

45

 

PDF

BS EN 17290  - Ultrasonic testing - Examination for loss of thickness due to erosion and-or corrosion using the TOFD technique

2018

This document specifies the application of the time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) technique in testing of metals for quantifying loss of thickness due to erosion and/or corrosion. This document applies to all types of corrosion or erosion damage, particularly those defined in ISO 16809.

BSI

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46

S

PDF

BS EN ISO 23279 - Non-Destructive Testing Of Welds - Ultrasonic Testing - Characterization Of Discontinuities In Welds

2017

This document specifies how to characterize indications from discontinuities by classifying them as originating from planar or non-planar embedded discontinuities.

BSI

‘Upon Requist

47

HB

PDF

Classroom Training Handbook 1

N/A

Classroom Training Handbook - Ultrasonic Testing, CT-6-4, is one of a series of training handbooks designed for use in the classroom or as a reference book during on-the-job training of nondestructive testing personnel

N/A

Free

48

HB

PDF

Classroom Training Handbook 2

N/A

The time required for the transducer to stop "ringing" or vibrating, after having been supplied with a large voltage pulse, is a measure of its resolving power. Long "tails" or bursts of sound energy from a ringing transducer cause a wide, high-amplitude, front-surface echo. A small discontinuity, just beneath the surface, is masked by the ringing signal.

N/A

Free

49

Paper

PDF

Common Ultrasonic Velocities in Materials

N/A

this paper specifies the common ultrasonic Velocities in Materials

N/A

Free

50

Paper

PDF

Design And Performance Of A Broadband 10 MHz Transducer For Elevatioed Temerature Leave-In-Place Applications

2009

This paper describes the novel design of an ultrasonic normal beam transducer for prolonged use in elevated temperature environments. Through the use of a carbon/carbon composite backing layer, prolonged exposure to elevated temperature had minimal effect on transducer performance. The conductive nature of the carbon/carbon allowed for an innovative electrical coupling technique. A clamping mechanism combined with the use of an annealed gold quarter wave matching layer allowed for jointfree, dry coupling. This simple design allows for easy field assembly and eliminates temperature dependencies in the acoustic coupling.

ASNT

‘Upon Requist

51

CN

PDF

DNV Classification NOTE 7 - Ultrasonic Inspection Of Weld Connections

1980

This Classification Note applies to procedures for ultasonic testing of weld connections in steel with thicknesses in the range 5 mrn - 250 mm. The requirements are in general to be adhered to, as far as applicabIe, when ultrasonic testing of weld connections are required by the Society. The use of other standards or manuals may, however, be granted if an equivalent ultrasonic inspection is ensured.

DNV

‘Upon Requist

52

GL

PDF

DNV Guidelines on AUT Qualification for Girth Weld Inspection During Offshore Pipelaying

N/A

AUT has gained a position as an increasingly important NDT-method for offshore pipelaying projects over the last years. Due to the possible influence on the AUT reliability of project specific parameters like weld bevel configuration, material and typical occurring defects, the DNV Offshore Standard F101 for offshore submarine pipelines calls for a qualification of the AUT system prior to pipelaying.

DNV

‘Upon Requist

53

GL

PDF

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS OF GUIDED WAVE TRAVEL TIME

N/A

Corrosion is the main cause of integral degradation in the pipelines and it comes in many forms. To guarantee a specific life span, the wall thickness of the pipeline is often designed with a safety margin and this excess material can guarantee the life span of the design if the rate of corrosion is known and sufficiently low. An important element here is the predictability of the rate of corrosion.

N/A

Free

54

Paper

PDF

High Temperature Piezoelectrics - A Comparison 

2013

The ability to apply typical ultrasonic techniques in high temperature environments is desired for the monitoring of process variables, such as the viscosity of melts. They are also suitable for maintaining the structure and material integrities in harsh environments, for example, turbine blades, combustion engines and nuclear reactors. The commercial piezoelectric material PZT possesses a Curie temperature of about 350°C, but has a maximum recommended operation temperature of 150-250°C. In this work, three high temperature piezoelectric crystals, YCa4O(BO3)3, LiNbO3 and AlN, were studied for use in ultrasonic transducers under continuous operation for 55 hours at 550°C. The oxidation of AlN, known to occur at these temperatures, had no significant effect on the ultrasonic transduction efficiency, but the difficulty to achieve high quality AlN single crystals limits their applications greatly. YCOB was found to be capable of efficient ultrasonic transduction to about 1000°C.

Bernhard R. Tittmann David A. Parks Shujun O. Zhang

‘Upon Requist

55

Paper

PDF

High temperature transeducer

2008

The problems of development of high-temperature ultrasonic transducers for modern science and technology applications are analysed. More than 10 piezoelectric materials suitable for operation at high temperatures are overviewed. It is shown that bismuth titanate based piezoelectric elements are most promisable. Bonding methods of piezoelectric elements to a protector and backing are discussed. Thermosonic gold-to-gold bonding is most modern and possesses unique features. Our achievements in this field are analysed in the context of world progress. In sol-gel and chemical vapour deposition technology bonding and sometimes coupling problems are avoided at all. Design peculiarities of the transducers are reviewed. Commercial sensors in the meanwhile are often characterized with poor performance in extreme conditions.

K. Barsauskas

‘Upon Requist

56

RP

PDF

HSE - Best Practice For The Procurement And Conduct Of Non-Destructive Testing - Part 1 - Manual Ultrasonic Inspection

2000

The recommendations contained in this document were aimed specifically to improve the inspection of conventional pressurised equipment.  However, the drafting committee considers that these measures can also apply to any application of manual ultrasonic inspection including fairground or railway components, offshore equipment, and conventional plant in nuclear installations.

HSE

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57

Research Report

PDF

HSE - Evaluation of the effectiveness of Non-Destructive Testing screening methods For In-Service Inspection

2009

The document is primarily intended for those with responsibilities in the planning, implementation and acceptance of screening inspections for engineering plant.

HSE

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58

Paper

PDF

HSE - Information For The Procurement and Conduct Of NDT - Part 4 - Ultrasonic Sizing Errors And Their Implication For Defect Assessement

2008

The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) have been promoting improvements in the reliability of all methods of NDT through the PANI projects [Refs. 1 & 2] and associated best practice documents [Refs. 3, 4 & 5]. Whilst the PANI projects have been primarily concerned with ultrasonic defect detection, sizing data has also been collected and analysed. In PANI 1, the through wall sizing results obtained from the 25 mm thick double V butt weld test piece varied between 2 mm and 10 mm for an 8 mm crack at the weld root and between 2 mm and 10 mm for a 3 mm LOSWF defect. PANI 2 data shows a similar spread of results as illustrated in Figure 1.1.

HSE

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59

HB

PDF

HSE - POD,POS Curves For Non-destructive Examination

2000

Recently, a large European joint industry project on structural integrity was initiated by British Steel plc as a Brite-Euram Project, No BE 95-1426. The acronym for the project is SINTAP, which stands for Structural INTegrity Assessment Procedure for European industries. The final results of the project will have a bearing on the contents of Eurocodes on steel structures and as such they are beneficial to the whole European steel and construction industry.

HSE

‘Upon Requist

60

Research Report

PDF

HSE - Replacement of Radiography by Ultrasonic Inspection

2005

This report describes the work performed on the project “Replacement of Radiography by Ultrasonic Inspection” funded by the HSE.

HSE

‘Upon Requist

61

Presentation

PDF

Improved In spection Of Small Diameter Pipe Welds

2010

Presentation Outline
u Issues with radiography
u Issues with manual and AUT
u Cobra – the ONDT solution
u Mechanical advantages
u Ultrasonic advantages
u Sample results

Michael Moles

‘Upon Requist

62

paper

PDF

Introduction to Ultrasonic Testing

N/A

This paper provides a general introduction to the ultrasonic testing

N/A

Free

63

S

PDF

ISO 2400 - Non-destructive testing - Ultrasonic testing - Specification for calibration block No 1

2012

This International Standard specifies requirements for the dimensions, material and manufacture of a steel block for calibrating ultrasonic test equipment used in manual testing

ISO

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64

S

PDF

ISO 5577 - Non-destructive testing - Ultrasonic testing - Vocabulary

2017

This document defines the terms used in ultrasonic non-destructive testing and forms a common basis for standards and general use. This document does not cover terms used in ultrasonic testing with phased arrays.

ISO

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65

S

PDF

ISO 7963 - Non-destructive testing - Ultrasonic testing - Specification for calibration block No. 2

2006

This International Standard specifies the dimensions, material, manufacture and methods of use for calibration block No. 2 for calibrating and checking ultrasonic testing equipment.

ISO

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66

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PDF

ISO 11666 - Non-destructive testing of welds - Ultrasonic testing - Acceptance levels

2018

This document specifies two ultrasonic acceptance levels known as acceptance level 2 (AL 2) and acceptance level 3 (AL 3) for full penetration welded joints in ferritic steels, which correspond to ISO 5817:2014, quality levels B and C. An acceptance level corresponding to ISO 5817:2014, quality level D is not included in this document, as ultrasonic testing is generally not requested for this weld quality

ISO

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67

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PDF

ISO 12710 - Non-destructive Testing - Ultrasonic Inspection - Evaluating Electronic

2002

This International Standard establishes the procedures for measuring performance characteristics of components of pulse-echo ultrasonic non-destructive testing instruments including both analog and digital type instruments with screen displays. The aim is to establish uniformity of evaluation techniques, to form a basis for data correlation and for interpretation of results obtained from different laboratories and at different times. Note that this International Standard establishes no acceptance criteria; such criteria should be specified by user parties.

ISO

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68

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ISO 12715 - Non-destructive testing - Ultrasonic testing - Reference blocks and test procedures

2014

This International Standard introduces two metal reference blocks, the hemicylindrical-stepped (HS) block and the side-drilled-hole (SDH) block. This International Standard establishes procedures for measuring the sound beam profiles generated by probes in contact with the test object. The probes include straight-beam, angle-beam (refracted compressional and refracted shear wave), focused beam, and dual-element probes. The side dimension of the probe has to be no greater than 25 mm.

ISO

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69

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PDF

ISO 16809 - Non-destructine Testing - Ultrasonic thickness measurement

2017

This document specifies the principles for ultrasonic thickness measurement of metallic and non-metallic materials by direct contact, based on measurement of time of flight of ultrasonic pulses only.

ISO

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70

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PDF

ISO 16810 - Non-destructive Testing - Ultrasonic testing - General principles -

2012

This International Standard defines the general principles required for the ultrasonic examination of industrial products that permit the transmission of ultrasound.

ISO

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71

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ISO 16811 - Non-destructive Testing - Ultrasonic testing - Sensitivity and range setting

2012

This International Standard specifies the general rules for setting the timebase range and sensitivity (i. e. gain adjustment) of a manually operated ultrasonic flaw detector with A-scan display in order that reproducible measurements may be made of the location and echo height of a reflector

ISO

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72

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PDF

ISO 16826 - Non-destructive Testing - Ultrasonic testing - Examination for discontinuities perpendicular to the surface

2012

This International Standard defines the principles for tandem- and longitudinal-longitudinal-transverse (LLT) wave examination for the detection of discontinuities perpendicular to the surface.

ISO

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73

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PDF

ISO 16827 - Non-destructive Testing - Ultrasonic testing - Characterization and sizing of discontinuities

2012

This document specifies the general principles and techniques for the characterization and sizing of previously detected discontinuities in order to ensure their evaluation against applicable acceptance criteria. It is applicable, in general terms, to discontinuities in those materials and applications covered by ISO 16810.

ISO

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74

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ISO 16831 - Non-destructive Testing - Ultrasonic testing - Characterization and verification of ultrasonic thickness measuring equipment

2012

This International Standard specifies methods and acceptance criteria for assessing the performance of instruments for measuring thickness using pulse-echo ultrasound.

ISO

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75

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PDF

ISO 16946 - Non-destructive testing - Ultrasonic testing - Specification for step wedge calibration block - Second Edition

2017

This document specifies the dimensions, material, and manufacture of a step wedge steel block for the calibration of ultrasonic instruments

ISO

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76

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PDF

ISO 17405 - Non-destructive testing - Ultrasonic testing - Technique of testing claddings produced by welding, rolling and explosion

2014

This International Standard specifies the techniques for manual ultrasonic testing of claddings on steel applied by welding, rolling, and explosion using single-element or dual-element probes.

ISO

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77

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ISO 17640 - Non-destructive Testing - Ultrasonic testing - Techniques, testing levels, and assessment 2018

2018

This document specifies techniques for the manual ultrasonic testing of fusion-welded joints in metallic materials of thickness ≥8 mm which exhibit low ultrasonic attenuation (especially that due to scatter) at object temperatures from 0 °C to 60 °C. It is primarily intended for use on full penetration welded joints where both the welded and parent material are ferritic.

ISO

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78

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ISO 22825 - Non-destructive Testing - Ultrasonic testing - Testing of welds in austenitic steels and nickel-based alloys 2017

2017

This document specifies the approach to be followed when developing procedures for the ultrasonic testing of the following welds

ISO

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79

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PDF

ISO 23279 - Non-destructive testing of welds - Ultrasonic testing - Characterization of discontinuities in welds

2017

This document specifies how to characterize indications from discontinuities by classifying them as originating from planar or non-planar embedded discontinuities

ISO

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80

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ISO-TS 16829 - Non-destructive testing - Automated ultrasonic testing - Selection and application of systems

2017

The information in this document covers all kinds of ultrasonic testing on components or complete manufactured structures for either correctness of geometry, for material properties (quality or defects), and for fabrication methodology (e.g. weld testing).

ISO

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81

Paper

PDF

Journal of Pressure Equipment - Ultrasonic Shear wave Testing Of Preessurized components at high Temperature

2005

The velocity and sound pressure of ultrasonic beam in materials vary with temperature. It is thus essential to know the temperatureeffect on ultrasonic parameters for the ultrasonic inspection at high temperature. In this paper, the variation of velocity and amplitude of ultrasonic shear wave with temperature 50~450℃ is discussed since the shear wave is generally used for UT of welds. Based on the experimental results, the relationship between shear wave velocity and temperature is established in order to determine the actual position and size of the defect at different temperatures. Solutions of ultrasonic shear wave testing at high temperature are given. It is suggested that much attention should be paid to the attenuation characteristics of ultrasonic shear wave at high temperature.

Changzhou Yan Weihe Guan
Zengliang Gao
Wenhu Chen

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82

Paper

PDF

MAGNAFLUX - How To Pick The Right Ultrasonic Couplant For Your Application

N/A

This paper help you select the best nondestructive testing couplant for your UT application

MAGNAFLUX

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83

GL

PDF

Malaysia Intrnational - A Guideline of Ultrasonic Inspection on Butt Welded Plates

2018

1. Introduction The ultrasonic inspection method for non-destructive testing is principally based on beams of mechanical waves of short wavelength and high frequency transmitted from a probe and detected by the same or other probes. The attached oscilloscope display with a time base shows the time it takes for an ultrasonic pulse to travel to a reflector (a flaw, the back surface or other free surface) in terms of distance travelled across the oscilloscope screen.

Ibrahim Burhan
Gopinathan Mutaiyah
 Dina Izzati Hashim
Tamil Moli
Loganathan Mohamed Thariq Hameed Sultan

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84

Paper

DOCX

Measuring Metal Thickness Through Paint

N/A

In many industrial and petrochemical maintenance situations it is necessary to measure the remaining thickness of metal that is subject to corrosion through one or more coats of paint or similar non-metallic coatings. With conventional ultrasonic thickness gages, the presence of paint or similar coatings will cause measurement errors, typically increasing the apparent metal thickness by more than twice the thickness of the paint, due to the paint's much slower sound velocity. Two solutions to this problem are available: Echo-to-Echo measurement and THRU-COAT measurement.

N/A

85

Paper

PDF

Nondestructive Testing Encyclopedia - Ultrasonic Testing

2006

A further aspect of flaw characterization is flaw sizing. This is critical to engineering evaluations to assess wear limits, crack growth rates and fitness for purpose criteria. Accuracy required by the engineer is not always possible to achieve by the ultrasonic technician and each sizing technique has its advantages and disadvantages. Various options available to the operator have been discussed in several locations throughout this text. These are summarized with a brief description of some of their pros and cons in the following table.

Ed Ginzel

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86

HB

PDF

PTP - Ultrasonic Testing Classroom Training Book

2007

The complexity and expense of today's machines. equipment and tools dictate fabrication and testing procedures that will ensure maximum reliability. To accomplish such reliability, test specifications have been set and test results must meet the criteria established in these specifications.

ASNT

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87

Paper

PDF

Remote Expert NDE & Ultrasonic Inspection

2010

NDE is commonly used to inspect aerospace structures for in-service damage. As instances on the tarmac or in flight are emergent and not part of scheduled maintenance inspection may be called for at locations without tradition NDE equipment and the trained personnel to perform the required inspections. With worldwide operations of aircraft with advanced structures, despite high costs associated with grounding aircraft to airlines or mission capability, low occurrence rates of incidents make it impractical to have trained personnel staffing many sites where inspections will be needed. This paper details a method and technology enabling such inspections to be made by qualified personnel at a centralized remote location with the aid of less trained operators at the aircraft.

Peter J. Hellenbrand, Gary E. Georgeson, Jeffrey R. Kollgaard, William P. Motzer,

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88

Paper

PDF

The Solution for Quantitative Continuous Wall Thinning Measurements in High Temperature Field Applications

2011

Current practices for inspection of oil & gas and power plant equipment is to carryout inspection during maintenance shutdown of plants, causing huge logistic problems and at a considerable cost. There is a clear trend in the industry to apply the concept of structural health monitoring (SHM) in order to increase reliability of equipment and minimize the shutdown inspection and maintenance time & cost. SHM techniques to these industries require sensors that are able to maintain high performance for many years in high temperature operational environment.

Aziz U. REHMAN, Meric KARAOGUZ

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89

Paper

PDF

The Use Of Ultrasonic Inspection At Elevated Temperature

2012

This paper will discuss the progress made by TÜV Rheinland Sonovation into the application of conventional and Automated Ultrasonic Techniques leading to the present capability of inspection at 900 degrees Fahrenheit (480°C). 

Alex Mclay, Jan VERKOOIJEN

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90

Paper

PDF

The Use of Ultrasonic Inspections at Elevated Temperature

N/A

This paper will discuss the progress made by Sonovation into the application of conventional and Automated Ultrasonic Techniques leading to the present capability of inspection at up to 900 degrees Fahrenheit (480°C).

Alex Mclay, Fred Gabriels

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91

RP

PDF

TWI - Procedres And Recommedations For The Ultrasonic Testing Of Butt Welds

N/A

In the present revisicn the original sections on flaw location, assessment, and size estimation are retained (save for minor amendments) because they deal with under-lying principles and unchanging practical requirements. Otherwise, however, full account has been taken of developments since 1965 in Great Britain, continental Europe, and North America, of the appearance of several British Standards. of the needs of an informed readership nourished by the growing technical literature on the subject, and of the experience gained in five years of trachiny Iffe fecomoten. clod procedures to engineers attending courses at the School of Applied Non• Destructive Testing (SANDT).

TWI

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92

HB

PDF

TWI - Ultrasonic Testing NDT4

2008

Non-destructive testing (NDT) is the ability to examine a material (usually for discontinuities) without degrading it.

TWI

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93

Presentation

PDF

Ultrasonic Course Level I & II

2006

This course to be familiar with the different scanning techniques of UT
To be familiar with different UT systems
To analysis the different defects
To be ready for examination acc SNT –TC – 1A

Mohamed-Elganzory

Free

94

HB

PDF

Ultrasonic Defect Sizing - Japanese Tip Echo Handbook

1996

Existence of the tip echo was first recognized in Japan, in the early1970's(ref.1). Since then, many people have tried to utilize the tip echo to measure defect depths. To investigate the phenomena further, a working group was created as a combined effort of the sub-committees of 202 and 210. Sub committee 202 had issued the socalled "Guide Lines for Tip Echo Method " by that time, but the method was still not well understood.

Tip Echo Working Group of
210 and 202 Sub-committee of
Japanese Society

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95

 

PDF

Ultrasonic Inspection Level II

2005

This book will provide a solid foundation in the general theory and practical skills utilized in industrial ultrasonic inspection. We hope that you will make the effort to ensure the maximum benefit from this book.

N/A

Free

96

HB

PDF

Ultrasonic Testing of Materials Handbook

1977

This second English edition is based on the third German edition. In view of most recent technological advances it has become necessary in many instances to supplement the second German edition and to revise some parts completely

Springer-Verlag

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97

Paper

PDF

Wall Thickness Measurement

N/A

In this article we review various complications regarding wall thickness measurement when using Digital Radiography. We discuss the amount of material to be penetrated for good inspection, the Blooming Effect (penetration vs. saturation), the implications of magnification (distortion and Unsharpness) and more.  Methods to counter problematic aspects of the wall thickness measurement are suggested.

N/A

Free

98

Paper

PDF

Weld Inspection of Ultrasonic Inspection 2 - Training for Nondstuctive Testing

1995

This arctile provides the chapter on weld inspection of Materials Research Institute's * correspondence training course 'Ultrasonic Inspection 2'. This correspondence programme has been provided since 1984. Courses are geared to meet the training requirements for the Canadian General Standards Board (CGSB) as part of the eligibility requirements to write the CGSB/ISO certification exams in nondestructive testing. These courses cover all subject matter required in ASNT & CGSB course outlines

E.A. Ginzel

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99

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PDF

Wolf Kleinert - Defect Sizing Using Non-Destructive Ultrasonic Testing

2016

This book presents a precise approach for defect sizing using ultrasonics. It describes an alternative to the current European and American standards by neglecting their limitations. The approach presented here is not only valid for conventional angle beam probes, but also for phased array angle beam probes. It introduces an improved method which provides a significant productivity gain and calculates curves with high accuracy. Its content is of interest to all those working with distance gain size (DGS) methods or are using distance ampllitude correction (DAC) curves.

Springer

‘Upon Requist