Visual Inspection

Visual Inspection (VI), or visual testing (VT), is the oldest and most basic method of inspection. In its simplest form, visual inspection is the process of examining a component or piece of equipment using one’s naked eye to look for flaws. Optical aids such as illuminators, mirrors, borescopes, etc. can be used to enhance one’s capability of visually inspecting equipment. Cameras, computer systems, and digital image analyzers can also be used to further the capabilities and benefits of visual inspection.

Visual inspection is routinely used for internal and external surface inspection of a variety of equipment types including storage tanks, pressure vessels, piping, and other equipment.

Visual inspection is simple and less technologically advanced compared to other methods. Despite this, it still has several advantages over more high-tech methods. Compared to other methods, it is far more cost effective because there is often no equipment required; just the eyes of a knowledgeable inspector. For similar reasons, it is also one of the easiest inspection techniques to perform.

Visual inspections are generally performed as a precursor to more advanced inspection techniques that are capable of detecting flaws beyond what the human eye can see, such as subsurface cracks.

No.

Type

Format

Title

Edition

Description

Author

Priority

Availability

1

Paper

PDF

ASME B 31.3  96 TABLE 341.3.2 ACC. Criteria For Visual Test

N/A

This paper covers the visual testing acceptance criteria as per mentioned in API 1104, API 650 & ASME B31.3

N/A

Free

2

Paper

PDF

ASNT - Boiler Tubes - Comparison Of Visual, Eddy Current, Ultrasonic And Magnetic Particle Testing Techniques For Boiler Tube Inspections

2012

This paper details actual inspection data and extracts from reports taken over a nine-month period of inspections of water tube boilers. The inspections were carried out by qualified technicians and inspectors using a combination of internal visual testing (VT) using remote cameras, eddy current testing, ultrasonic testing (UT) and magnetic particle testing (MT).

Michael Leonard Hodgson

Upon Request

3

HB

PDF

ASNT - Nondestructive Testing Handbook - Vol.8 - Visual and Optical Testing

Visual and Optical Testing, the eighth volume in the second edition of the Nondestructive Testing Handbook series, demonstrates again AS NT's dedication to its missions of providing technical information and instructional materials and promoting nondestructive testing (NDT) technology' as a profession.

ASNT

Upon Request

4

HB

PDF

ASNT - Nondestructive Testing Handbook - Vol.9 - Visual Testing

2010

The authoritative reference for visual inspection. Emphasis on practicality, with information for Level II and Level III inspectors. Applications including metals, welding, chemical, petroleum, electric power, aerospace. Scores of illustrations of anomalies. Diverse information in one place. Updated standards. Digital photography and video. Image processing. New and authoritative discussion on vision acuity. Metric units throughout. Updated references provided for published standards. New information on: physics of light photometry vision acuity exams proper use of eye charts digital photography image processing machine vision magnifiers illumination surface roughness calipers and gages analog and digital video connectors video probe measuring with borescopes metal discontinuities at different stages of processing and service life direct versus indirect techniques

ASNT

Upon Request

5

GL

PDF

ASNT - Relevant Discontinuities - Visual Inspection

2018

includes overviews of each discontinuity, with descriptions, locations in the test part, and characteristics. It features more than 30 inherent, processing, and in-service discontinuities detectable by visual testing,

ASNT

Upon Request

6

Paper

PDF

ASNT - Visual Inspection - Remote Visual Testing - NDT Initial Inspection Of Turbines and Boilers

2016

Remote visual testing (VT) is one of the main nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques used for determining the surface conditions of different components that the human eye cannot reach. This testing is carried out through a borescope (ASNT, 2010). It is not necessary to take the machine apart or stop working for a long time, which reduces production costs. There are many types of borescopes that help the inspector identify discontinuities in a fast and easy way, depending on the component being tested. The quality of the inspection for most borescopes depends on the focal length, which may range from 3mm(0.1in.) to infinity (ASM,1989).

ASNT

Upon Request

7

GL

PDF

ASNT Level II Study Guide - Visual And Optical Testing Method

1998

This study guide contains basic information intended to prepare a candidate for Level II visual and optical testing examinations administered within the ASNT Central Certification Program (ACCP). This study guide does not present all of the knowledge necessary for certification; the candidate is expected to supplement this guide with the recommended references that follow.

ASNT

Upon Request

8

GL

PDF

ASNT Level III Study Guide - Visual And Optical Testing Method

ASNT study guides provide prospective ASNT Level III examinees with enough technical knowledge to pass an ASNT NDT Level III examinations. Intended to be used with a comprehensive NDT text, such as volumes from the Nondestructive Testing Handbook series.

ASNT

Upon Request

10

HB

PDF

AWS - PHB-6-2004 The Everyday Pocket Handbook for Visual Inspection of AWS D1.1 Structural Welding Code's Fabrication and Welding Requirements

2004

The inspection requirements for the fabrication and welding of steel structures are very extensive. This Pocket Handbook has been developed to provide a useful tool for inspectors to carry in their pockets or tool kits so that selected pertinent portions of the AWS Structural Welding Code—Steel, D1.1/D1.1M:2004, can be easily referenced at the job site. Underlining is as shown in the code. Contents: Requirements for Transitions Between Materials of Unequal Thickness; Thermal Cutting and Access Hole Requirements; Tolerance of Joint Dimensions; Dimensional Tolerances of Welded Structural Members; Base Material Surface Requirements; Weld Profile Requirements; Acceptance Criteria for Visual Inspection of Welds.

AWS

Upon Request

11

GL

PDF

AWS - The Practical Reference Guide For Welding Inspection Management - Visual Inspection Of Pressure Vessels And Pressure Piping

2003

This publication is designed to provide information in regard to the subject matter covered. It is made available with the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in the rendering of professional advice. Reliance upon the information contained in this document should not be undertaken without an independent verification of its application for a particular use. The publisher is not responsible for loss or damage resulting from use of this publication. This document is not a consensus standard. Users should refer to the applicable standards for their particular application.

AWS

Upon Request

12

GL

PDF

AWS B1.11 - Guide for the visual Inspection of welds

2004

This guide includes an outline of the fundamental prerequisites for personnel performing visual examination of welds. Such prerequisites include physical limitations or capabilities, as well as technical lnowledge, training, experience, judgement, and certification.

AWS

Upon Request

13

GL

PDF

AWS B1.11-2000 .Guide for the visual Inspection of welds

2004

This guide includes an outline of the fundamental prerequisites for personnel performing visual examination of welds. Such prerequisites include physical limitations or capabilities, as well as technical knowledge, training, experience, judgement, and certification.

AWS

Upon Request

14

GM

PDF

AWS VIW-M 2008-4th Ed. Visual Inspection Workshop-Reference Manual

2008

This manual essentially provides an introduction to visual examination of welding. These examinations fall into three categories based on the time they are performed, as follows: (1) prior to welding, (2) during welding, and (3) after welding. An extensive treatment is provided on weld surface conditions, including reference to frequently used terminologies associated with preferred and nonpreferred conditions. Visual examination may be performed by different people or organizations. Personnel performing welding examination include welders, welding supervisors, the contractor’s or fabricator’s welding inspector, the purchaser’s examiner, or the regulatory inspector. For the purpose of simplicity, these individuals are referred to as visual inspectors in the remainder of this manual in that they perform visual inspection. Fabrication documents, contract specifications, and regulatory agencies may specify who performs final inspection.

AWS

Upon Request

15

S

PDF

BS EN ISO 17637 - Non-destructive Testing Of Welds - Visual Testing Of Fusion-Welded Joints

2014

This document specifies the visual testing of fusion welds in metallic materials. It may also be applied to visual testing of the joint prior to welding.

BSI

 

Upon Request

16

S

PDF

BS EN13927 - Non-Destructive Testing - Vesual Testing - Equipment

2003

This European Standard describes general requirements for equipment used in visual testing. The application of equipment is necessary in visual testing when:
¾ objects, which are visually or on account of environmental factors not accessible, need to be made accessible
to viewing;
¾ the test sensitivity is insufficient;
¾ an imaging record is required.
This European Standard includes the verification of equipment.

BSI

 

Upon Request

17

HB

PDF

CBI Module 16 - Techniques of Visual Inspection

1996

The objectives of this module, therefore, are to discuss a wide range of techniques in the inspection of welds and welded products and to cover what is traditionally termed visual inspection. After successfully completing this module you should be able to: Explain various types and sources of measurement errors/ Discuss the use of various measuring devices/ Describe methods for checking distortion in a welded structure/ List types of base metal defects/ Measure various dimensions of welds/ Recognize other weld faults, such as undercut and cracks, discuss acceptance levels, and describe measurement methods.

CWB

Free

19

GL

PDF

Guide To Weld Inspection For Stractural Steelwork

N/A

Introduces how techniques for weld inspection and testing can be used to identify and characterize defects that can arise in structural steel components. The guidance is aimed at persons undertaking or responsible for weld inspection in fabrication facilities manufacturing components designed for static loading, and explains the causes of defects and methods to avoid them.

BCSA

Upon Request

20

S

PDF

ISO 17637 - Non-destructive testing of welds - Visual testing of fusion-welded joints - Second Edition

2016

This document specifies the visual testing of fusion welds in metallic materials. It may also be applied to visual testing of the joint prior to welding.

ISO

 

Upon Request

21

Paper

PDF

Remote Visual Inspection Basics

2017

This paper covers and describes the remote Visual Inspection and its features and applications

GRANT REIG

Upon Request

22

HB

PDF

The Every day Pocket Handbook For Visual Inspection and Weld Discontinuities - Causes and Remedles

2015

This book Covers the following: (Basic Safety precautions, Visual Inspection Notes, Discontinuities types, Fillet weld measurement, Metric Conversion Table, Plate and pipe dimensions, NDT symbols

AWS

 

Upon Request

23

HB

PDF

The Everyday Pocket Handbook For Visual Inspection Of AWS D1.1 Stractural Welding Code's, Fabrication & Welding Requirements

2015

This Pocket Handbook has been developed to provide a useful tool for inspectors to carry in their pockets or tool kits so that selected pertinent portions of the AWS Structural Welding Code—Steel, D1.1/D1.1M:2004, can be easily referenced at the job site.

AWS

 

Upon Request

24

PDF

TWI WIS 5 Course - Welding Inspection of Steels

2007

The purpose of this text is to provide supporting WIS 5 (Welding Inspection of Steels course number 5) reference notes for candidates seeking qualification in the Certification Scheme of Welding and Inspection Personnel CSWIP 3.1/3.0 Welding Inspectors examinations.

TWI

Upon Request

26

Paper

PDF

Visual Testing Measuring Tools

2000

This paper covers and describes the tools used in Visual inspection and what it used used for

N/A

Upon Request